How To Reference Lectures In Essays Are Movies

MLA

Back to Using Primary Sources | Why Use Primary Sources | Citing Primary Sources | Copyright and Primary Sources
Finding Primary Sources | Teacher's Guides and Analysis Tool

Overview | Chicago | MLA | APA

MLA

Entire Web Site

The Web site of the Library of Congress connects users to content areas created by the Library’s many experts. In some cases, content can be posted without a clear indication of author, title, publisher or copyright date. Look for available clues and give as much information as possible, including the URL and date accessed.

MLA Citation Format
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., section 5.6.1)

Structure

  1. Name of the author, compiler, director, editor, narrator, performer, or translator of the work
  2. Title of the work (italicized if the work is independent; in roman type and quotation marks if the work is part of a larger work)
  3. Title of the overall Web site (italicized), if distinct from item 2
  4. Version or edition used
  5. Publisher or sponsor of the site; if not available use N.p.
  6. Date of publication
  7. Medium of publication (Web)
  8. Date of access
  9. URL (in angle brackets) – optional

Last name, First name. “Section of Website.” Title of the Web site. Version/Edition. Name of publisher or sponsor. Date of publication. Web. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

Lib. of Cong. U.S. Govt. Web. 10 February 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/>.

Top

Articles and Essays

Special presentations, articles, and essays include examples that illustrate collection themes. Many collections include specific items, such as timelines, family trees or scholarly essays, which are not primary source documents. Such content has been created to enhance understanding of the collection.

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., section 5.6.2b)

Structure

  1. Author last name, author first name
  2. Title (italicized if independent; in roman type and quotation marks if the work is part of a larger work)
  3. Title of the overall Web site (italicized)
  4. Version or edition
  5. Publisher; if not available, use N.p.
  6. Date of publication (day, month, year); if nothing is available, use n.d.
  7. Medium (Web)
  8. Date of access
  9. URL (in angle brackets) – optional

Last name, First name. Title. Title of the Web site. Version or edition. Publisher or N.p. Day Month Year of publication or n.d. Web. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

Brief History of the National Parks. Lib. of Cong. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/collection/national-parks-maps/special-presentation/>.

Top

Cartoons and Illustrations

Cartoons and illustrations included in newspapers, magazines or other periodicals often represent the historical perspectives and opinions of the time of publication. This illustration, Join or Die from the May 9, 1754, Pennsylvania Gazette, was published by Benjamin Franklin and expresses his views about the need for the colonies to join forces to confront their mutual concerns with England.

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., section 5.7.9 and 5.6.2c)

Structure

  1. Artist last name, artist first name
  2. Title of work (in quotation marks)
  3. Format (cartoon or illustration)
  4. Publication information
    • a. Newspapers: Name of Print Publication [Location if not in the name of the publication] date: page numbers
    • b. Journals: Volume number (date of publication): page numbers.
    • c. Books: City: Name of Publisher, date of publication: page numbers if being referenced
  5. Title of the database or Web site (italicized)
  6. Medium (Web)
  7. Date of access
  8. URL (in angle brackets) – optional

Last Name, First Name. “Title.” Illustration. Newspaper title [Location] Day Month Year of publication: page number. Title of the Web site. Web. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

Franklin, Benjamin. "Join or Die." Illustration. The Pennsylvania Gazette 9 May 1754. Lib. of Cong. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002695523/>.

Top

Films

Films and other moving images offer visual tools for studying not only the technology of a time, but the prevailing social attitudes, as well.

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., sections 5.7.3 and 5.6.2d)

Structure

  1. Film Title (italicized)
  2. Director Name or relevant creator name, e.g., Dir. John Doe
  3. Distributor, year of release
  4. Title of database or Web site (italicized)
  5. Medium of publication (Web)
  6. Date of access
  7. URL (in angle brackets) – optional

Film Title. Dir. First name Last Name. Distributor, year of release. Title of the Web site. Web. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

Bargain Day, 14th Street, New York. Photog. Frederick S. Armitage. American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, 1905. Lib. of Cong. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/item/00694373>.

Top

Government Publications

Many government publications originate through executive departments, federal agencies, and the United States Congress. Many of the documents are chronicled records of government proceedings, which become part of the Congressional Record. These documents are often posted without a clear indication of author, title, publisher or copyright date. Look for available clues and give as much information as possible, including date accessed.

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., sections 5.5.20 and 5.6.2c)

Structure

  1. Name of government
  2. Name of agency
  3. Title of the publication (italicized)
  4. If the title is a serial publication, follow title with date, e.g., 27 Jan. 2016: page numbers.
  5. Place of publication: publisher, year published.
  6. Title of the database or Web site (italicized)
  7. Medium of publication (Web)
  8. Date of access
  9. URL (in angle brackets) – optional

Government. Agency name. Title of Publication. Day Month Year of publication: page numbers. Place of publication: Publisher, Year published. Title of the Web site. Web. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

United States House of Representatives. “Proceedings. 2nd Congress, 2nd sess.” Annals of Congress. 747-48. Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1849. Lib. of Cong. Web. 10 Feb. 2012. <http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ ampage?collId=llac&fileName=llac003.db&recNum=370>.

Top

Manuscripts

The Library of Congress online collections include letters, diaries, recollections, and other written material. One example is this letter from Helen Keller to Mr. John Hitz. Helen describes her trip to Chicago to visit the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893.

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., sections 5.7.12 and 5.6.2d).

Structure

  1. Author last name, author first name
  2. Title (italicized, or quotation marks for a minor work)
  3. Date of composition
  4. Form of the material – MS for manuscript, TS for typescript
  5. Name of library, institution, or collection which houses the work, followed by the location
  6. Title of the database or Web site (italicized)
  7. Medium (if from the Web)
  8. Date of access
  9. URL (in angle brackets) – optional

Last name, First name. “Title.” Date. Form of the material. Institution, city. Title of the Web site. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

Keller, Helen. “Letter to John Hitz 29 Aug. 1893.” 1893. TS. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. Lib. of Cong. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/item/magbellbib004020>.

Top

Maps and Charts

Maps are far more than just maps of cities and towns. They document historical places, events, and populations, as well as growth and changes over time. This map is from the Library of Congress online collections.

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., sections 5.7.8 and 5.6.2c)

Structure

  1. Title (italicized; in roman type and quotation marks if the work is part of a larger work)
  2. Format (map or chart)
  3. If part of a larger work, include that title (italicized) after the format
  4. Location: publisher, date
  5. Title of the database or Web site (italicized)
  6. Medium (Web)
  7. Date of access
  8. URL (in angle brackets) – optional

Title. Map. Location: publisher, date. Title of the Web site. Web. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the Colony of Liberia. Map. Philadelphia: Finley, 1830. Lib. of Cong. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/item/96680499>.

Top

Newspapers

Historic newspapers provide a glimpse of historic time periods. The articles, as well as the advertising, are an appealing way to get a look at the regions of the country or the world and the issues of the day.

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., section 5.4.5 and 5.6.2c)

Structure

  1. Author last name, author first name (if applicable)
  2. Title of article (in quotation marks)
  3. Name of newspaper (italicized), city of publication if needed (square brackets, not italicized) and date published (with no punctuation in between)
  4. Title of the database or Web site (italicized)
  5. Medium (Web)
  6. Date of access
  7. URL (in angle brackets) – optional

Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper [city] Day Month Year published. Title of the Web site. Web. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

“Free Education While You Wait For Orders Home.” The Stars and Stripes 6 Dec. 1918. Lib. of Cong. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/item/sn88075768/1918-12-06/ed-1>.

Top

Oral History Interviews

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., section 5.7.7 and 5.6.2b)

Structure:

  1. Interviewee last name, first name
  2. Title of the interview (if any) In quotations if it is part of a publication, in italics if published independently. Use Interview without quotes or italics if there is no title
  3. Name of interviewer if known
  4. Date of interview
  5. Title of the database or Website (italicized)
  6. Medium (Web)
  7. Date of access
  8. URL (in angle brackets) - optional

Last name, First name. “Title of Interview.” By Name of Interviewer.Day Month Year of Interview. Title of the Web site. Web. Day Month Year of access. ,opt. URL.

Example:

Patton, Gwendolen M. “Gwendolyn M. Patton oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Montgomery, Alabama, 2011-06-01.” Lib. of Cong. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/item/afc2010039_crhp0020/>.

Top

Photographs

Photographs and drawings appear in many of the Library of Congress digitized historical collections. This photograph from the Library's online collections shows casualties of war on the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., sections 5.7.6 and 5.6.2d)

Structure

  1. Artist last name, artist first name
  2. Title (italicized)
  3. Date of composition
  4. Format (photograph)
  5. Institution that houses the work, city where the piece is located
  6. Title of the database or Web site (italicized)
  7. Medium (Web)
  8. Date of access
  9. URL (in angle brackets) – optional

Last name, First name. Title. Date of composition. Photograph. Institution, City. Title of the Web site. Web. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

O'Sullivan, Timothy H. Incidents of the War. A Harvest of Death. c1865. Photograph. Lib. of Cong., Washington D.C. Lib. of Cong. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/cwp2003001110/PP/>.

Top

Sound Recordings

This recording of Mrs. Ben Scott and Myrtle B. Wilkinson performing Haste to the Wedding is an example of Anglo-American dance music on the fiddle and tenor banjo recorded on October 31, 1939.

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., sections 5.7.2 and 5.6.2d)

Structure

  1. Creator last name, creator first name
  2. Title (italicized)
  3. Any additional performers are listed here – first name followed by last name
  4. When citing a performance, list the date of the performance here, with the abbreviation “rec.” preceding the date
  5. Manufacturer and year published/issued
  6. Indicate the original audio format (CD, audiocassette, etc.)
  7. Title of the database or Web site (italicized)
  8. Medium (Web)
  9. Date of access
  10. URL (in angle brackets) – optional

Last name, First name. Song title. Perf. First name Last name. Rec. Day Month Year. Manufacturer, Year. Original format. Title of the Web site. Web. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

Scott, Mrs. Ben, and Myrtle B. Wilkinson. Haste to the Wedding. Rec. 31 October 1939 by Sydney Robertson Cowell. 78 rpm. Lib. of Cong. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/item/afccc.a4227b4>.

Top

Films have become a strong medium for communicating stories, commentary, emotion, research, art, and many other subjects in a creative way. This medium has seen marked growth in both the number of titles offered and the number of distributors or service providers (e.g. Hulu, Netflix, HBO Go, etc.). In addition, technology has evolved to allow every individual to be their own “filmmaker” and record videos that can be shared online, whether it be via YouTube, Vine, Instagram, etc.

This guide describes how to cite three different types of films and videos:

  • Films and videos found on a website
  • Films and videos found on a database
  • Films and videos not viewed online

To cite a film or video in MLA 8, locate the following pieces of information:

The name of the creator of the film or video
The title of the film or video
The title of the site that the video was found on
The names of any contributors, such as a director or performer
*The version (if applicable)
Any numbers associated with the video
The publisher
The publication date
The name of the database (if applicable)
*The location (usually a URL)

*Notes:

On versions: Versions can include an uncut version, unrated version, widescreen, etc.

On URLs: It is strongly recommended to include the URL in the citation. Even though web pages and URLs can be taken down or changed, it is still possible to learn about the source from the information seen in the URL.
When including URLs in a citation, omit http:// and https:// from the website’s address.
When creating a citation that will be read on a digital device, it is helpful to make the URL clickable so that readers can directly access the source themselves.

How to Cite a Film or Video Found on a Website in MLA 8:

To cite a film or video found on a website, use the following structure:

Last name, First name of the creator. “Title of the film or video.” Title of the website, role of contributors and their First name Last name, Version, Numbers, Publisher, Publication date, URL.

Examples of MLA 8 citations for films or videos found on a website:

RotoBaller. “RotoBaller MLB: Top Fantasy Baseball Catcher Dynasty League Prospects for 2016.” YouTube, commentary by Raphael Rabe, 27 Mar. 2016, youtu.be/gK645_7TA6c.

“Lunch Hour NYC: Hot Dog Carts.” New York Public Library, 5 July 2012, www.nypl.org/audiovideo/hot-dog.

How to Cite a Film or Video Found on a Database in MLA 8:

Use this citation structure if citing a film or video found on a database, such as Hulu, Netflix, Amazon Prime, and/or HBO Go.

Last name, First name of the creator. Title of the film or video. Role of contributors and their First name Last name, Version, Numbers, Publisher, Publication date. Database name, url.

Examples of MLA 8 citations for Films and Videos Found on a Databases:

Kindergarten Cop. Directed by Ivan Reitman, performance by Arnold Schwarzenegger, Universal Pictures, 21 Dec. 1990. Amazon Prime, www.amazon.com/Kindergarten-Cop-Arnold-Schwarzenegger/dp/B001VLLES4.

How to Cite a Film or Video Not Viewed Online in MLA 8:

Structure of a citation for a film or video not viewed online:

Last name, First name of the creator. Title of the film or video. Role of other contributors and their First name Last name, Version, Numbers, Publisher, Publication date.

Example of an MLA 8 citation for films and videos not viewed online:

The Little Mermaid. Directed by Ron Clements and John Musker, Walt Disney Pictures, 17 Nov. 1989.

Categories: 1

0 Replies to “How To Reference Lectures In Essays Are Movies”

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *